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Medicinal Mushrooms

by Christopher Hobbs, L.Ac., A.H.G.

INTRODUCTION

Mushrooms have been valued throughout the world as both food and medicine for thousands of years. Throughout the world, many people enjoy hunting for wild mushrooms, delighting in the variety of shapes, sizes, and colors exhibited by these "flowers of the fall." Europeans have always appreciated the gastronomic value of wild mushrooms. In Japan, pushcart vendors on the streets still sell medicinal mushrooms to the average citizen who uses them to maintain health and promote longevity. Some Japanese people have even been said to travel hundreds of miles in order to collect wild mushrooms that only grow on very old plum trees--such as the Reishi--renowned as a cure for cancer and degenerative diseases. Likewise, for over 3,000 years the Chinese have used and revered many fungi for their health-giving properties, especially tonics for the immune system (Bo and Yun-sun, 1980; Yun-Chang, 1985). To the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria a number of fungi became an important part of their mythology and medical practice (Oso, 1977).

Mushrooms may also be the perfect food for staying trim and healthy. A recent "letter from the editor" in the Nutrition Action newsletter (September, 1994) from the Center for Science in the Public Interest mentioned that up to 1/3 of the U.S. population are overweight. Because fats occur in mushrooms in minor amounts, especially compared with protein and carbohydrates, and the fatty fraction consists predominantly of unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, they may be the perfect food for losing weight and maintaining a healthy heart and cardiovascular system.

When it comes to mushrooms, most Americans and inhabitants of the British Isles are rather ignorant. Many people in the United States have a distinct dislike, even a fear, of fungi--a phenomenon that may be called "fungophobia"--a term coined by Hay (1887). Rolfe and Rolfe wrote about the distinctly unsavory view of which the British view mushrooms and mushroom hunters, in their delightful Romance of the Fungus World (1925). Generally, the first association wild mushrooms bring to mind here is "poisonous." The principal edible mushroom most Americans know is the bland Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing., or "button mushroom" found in supermarkets. It has little flavor and negligible medicinal value compared with other wild species. In fact, it can even be unhealthful in the sense that it may be heavily sprayed with malathion and other pesticides (many commercially cultivatemushrooms are among the most heavily sprayed items in the vegetable section). The button mushroom may also have cancer-causing properties when eaten continuously, though exactly how potent this effect might be in humans is not clear. See the section on this common mushroom on page xx for further details.

In recent years other cultivated species such as the oyster mushroom and shiitake have begun to appear in markets.

Happily, however, there are signs that these narrow-minded attitudes in the United States and England are changing and catching up with the rest of the world. The spreading popularity of natural foods is one factor that has helped re-awaken interest in mushrooms and mushroom-hunting. Another factor is the recent growth of the mushroom-export business, which has been boosted by troubles in Europe. Due to acid rain, sprawling development, and industrial accidents such as the one at Chernobyl, millions of acres of mushroom habitat in Europe and Russia have been disturbed, and many species of wild mushrooms are becoming scarce (Cherfas, 1991).

Europe imports thousands of pounds of chanterelles and boletus each year. The high price these traditional gastronomic delights bring creates a good supplementary income for knowledgeable gatherers in the United States. Indeed, wild or home cultivation may soon become viable cottage industries in the Pacific Northwest, which has the forest habitats and substantial rainfall needed for such ventures. Cultivation as a home business may be preferable to the recent problems that are surfacing in the Pacific Northwest among professional and itinerant pickers alike--namely squabbling over mushroom patches on public lands. A newspaper article told of teams of professional pickers using walkie-talkies to coordinate harvests and mentioned that they can become upset when other pickers strayed into what they considered their turf. In response to the increased harvesting pressure, quotas were recently set in the Mt. Hood National Forest (McRae, 1993). For books and supplies for the cultivation of edible and medicinal mushrooms, see the appendix.

Finally, Japanese products containing LEM, a polysaccharide-rich extract from the shiitake mushroom and similar extracts from maitake are currently undergoing trials in Japan and the U.S. to test their effectiveness in treating various forms of cancer. They show promise for treating people suffering from various forms of cancer and AIDS and are currently in strong demand in Japan. Commercial shiitake cultivators in the U.S., Canada, and in parts of Asia are decidedly interested in this new potential market and are starting large cultivation efforts, hoping the demand will continue to grow as further scientific studies are conducted. At present, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products from mushrooms may be worth more than 1.2 billion dollars U.S.

Wei Qi Soup for Building Immune Strength

Directions: Fill a pot 2/3 full with purified or spring water, then add:

Astragalus membranaceus (5-7 sticks)

Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) (1 medium)

any other tonifying mushrooms (2-3)

Slightly sprouted beans (1/4-1/2 cup)

(aduki, black, etc.)

Bring water to boil, simmer for 20 minutes, then add:

*Organic barley (1/2-1 cup)

(vary amount for thickness desired)

Simmer another 20 minutes, then add favorite vegetables such as:

*carrots & celery
*beet tops (or other greens, etc.)
*cabbage or potatoes (optional)
*sea vegetables (nori, kelp, wakame, etc.)
*gobo (i.e., burdock root)
*nettles or other wild greens (when available)
*garlic & onions

Simmer until the vegetables are tender, then add miso and spices such as ginger, celery, or fennel seed. Make enough for a few days and store it in the refrigerator.

Indications and Dosage: During illness, when solid food is not desirable, drink 3-4 cups of the warm broth (add less barley and more water to make broth). For degenerative immune conditions, eat 1-2 small bowls per day, and drink the broth as desired. For autoimmune diseases such as allergies, lupus, diabetes, and hepatitis accompanied by fatigue, weakness, or autoimmune conditions, eat the soup when desired, or drink the broth. This soup can be used upon occasion (1-2 times per week) for general tonification and may help to increase stamina.

Table 1: Sources of Medicinal Fungi

Type of Product

Source

Bulk mushrooms

    • Natural food stores (reishi, shiitake)
    • Markets (shiitake, pleurotus)
    • Chinese herb dealers (reishi, cordyceps, zhu ling, hoelen, auricularia, etc.)
    • Herb shops (reishi)
    • Home grown--logs, supplies (shiitake, pleurotus, reishi, others)
    • From the wild (pleurotus, reishi, turkey tails, auricularia, tremella, honey mushroom, chanterelles, and many others)

Powdered concentrates (capsules, tablets, granules)

    • Natural food stores (reishi, shiitake, maitake, cordyceps)
    • Chinese herb dealers (formulas, freeze-dried granules to make instant tea, reishi tea cubes)
    • Herb shops (same as natural food stores)
    • Selected drug stores (reishi)

Liquid extract products (tinctures, ampules--extract in honey base)

    • Natural food stores (reishi, shiitake, cordyceps, rarely others)
    • Herb shops (same as above)
    • Chinese herb dealers (reishi, shiitake, cordyceps)

 

 

 

 

  • Table 2: Use Summary of Major Medicinal Mushrooms: Arranged by Species

Mushroom

Main Uses

Preparations

Dose

Contraindications

Artist’s conk

Ganoderma applanatum

immune stimulant, tumor inhibition, hemostatic

dried, capsules

30 g/day in tea or water-based extract

none

Mushroom

Main Uses

Preparations

Dose

Contraindications

Chanterelle

Cantharellus cibarium

tumor inhibition

fresh or dried

ad lib.

no toxicity

Hoelen

Poria cocos

diuretic, antiviral, sedative, fever, spleen/kidney tonic

dried

9-15 g

generally safe

Honey mushroom

Armilariella mellea

gastritis, nightblindness, insomnia; "wind-induced" arthritis

fresh or dried

fresh, ad lib or 30-90 g powder

low toxicity; may cause mild nausea or diarrhea in susceptible individuals

Maitake

Grifola frondosa

high blood pressure, tumor inhibition, liver protectant

fresh or dried

3-7 g/day

low toxicity

Oyster

Pleurotus ostreatus

tumor inhibition, high cholesterol

fresh cooked; dried, powdered

ad lib.

low toxicity

Reishi

Ganoderma lucidum

immune activation, tumor inhibition, expectorant, hepatitis, hypertension, nervousness, general weakness

dried, liquid extract, tablets

tincture, 10 ml 3x/day; tablets, 3 1g tab 3x/day

very low toxicity reported

Shiitake

Lentinulus edodes

immune regulator, tumor inhibition, antiviral, antibacterial, liver protectant

fresh, dried, liquid extract, tablets

dried, 6-16 g; fresh, 90 g

no toxicity; some contact dermatitis

Turkey tails

Trametes versicolor

diabetes, antiviral, immune enhancement, hepatitis

dried

3 tablets, 2 x daily; 20 g 3x/day as tea

no toxicity

Wood ear

Tremella fuciformis

immune stimulant, poor circulation

dried

15 g as tea 2x/day

rare allergic reaction

 

  • Table 3: Medicinal Mushroom Uses: Arranged by Symptom or Condition

Symptom/Condition

Species

Altitude sickness

reishi

Arrhythmia

reishi

Bleeding

false tinder polypore, wood ear, earthstar, puffball

Bronchial inflammation

shiitake, reishi

Cancer, breast

chaga, shiitake; coriolus

Cancer, esophageal

artist’s conk; coriolus

Symptom/Condition

Species

Cancer, gastric

split gill ; coriolus

Cancer, skin

Stinkhorn

Cancer, liver

Coriolus

Cancer preventative

red-belted polypore, maitake, coriolus, shiitake

Cancer, uterine

Chaga; coriolus

Chemotherapy (to counteract side effects)

maitake, shiitake, turkey tail

Cholesterol, high

shiitake, jelly fungus, oyster mushroom

Colds and flu

Shiitake

Coughs

snow fungus, earthstar, hoelen, reishi

Diabetes

Coriolus, maitake, reishi, shiitake

Diarrhea

false tinder polypore

Dizziness

honey mushroom, reishi

Dry skin

Chanterelle, honey mushroom

Eye inflammation

Tremella

Fatigue

Reishi, turkey tails, maitake

Gastritis

honey mushroom, chaga

Hemorrhoids

wood ear, gilled polypore

Hepatitis

reishi, shiitake, hoelen, coriolus

High blood pressure

maitake, shiitake, reishi

Immune weakness

maitake, shiitake, coriolus, reishi, others

Indigestion

true tinder polypore

Insomnia

reishi, honey mushroom

Low energy

Coriolus

Muscle spasms

wood ear

Muscle tension

oyster mushroom

Nervousness

Reishi

Neurasthenia

honey mushroom, reishi

Poor vision, night blindness

honey mushroom, chanterelle

Rhinitis

Reishi

Ulcers

chaga, enokitake, reishi

Urinary tract infections

zhu ling

Viral infections

Shiitake, coriolus, birch polypore

Wounds

Earthstar, puffball

Resources

Mushroom-growing supplies:

Fungi Perfecti

P.O. Box 7634

Olympia, WA 98507

206 426-9292

Herbalist and Alchemist

168C Biedleman Rd.

Wash., NJ 07882

908 689-9020

Chinese herbs in bulk, extracts and other herbal products

RECOMMENDED READING LIST

  • Medicinal Mushrooms by Christopher Hobbs
  • The Shiitake Growers Handbook by P. Przlbylowicz and J. Donoghue.
  • The Mushroom Cultivator by P. Stamets and J. Chilton.
  • Mushrooms Demystified by David Arora.
  • All That the Rain Promises and More by David Arora



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